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Aztec Gods and Dieties


Codex: Borgia

Centeotl (also Cinteotl), The Lord of Maize. He is also known as Xilonen, "The Harry One"

Centeol is the son of Tlazolteotl. His female partner is the maize goddess Chicomecoatl ("Seven Snake").

In Aztec mythology, maize was brought to this world by Quetzalcoatl.

In the tonalpohualli, Centeotl is the Lord of the Day for days with number 7 (chicome in Nahuatl). He is the fourth Lord of the Night.


Codex Borgia

Chalchihuihtotolin, the Jewelled Fowl, is a symbol of powerful sorcery. Tezcatlipoca's nagul.

Tezcatlipoca can tempt humans into self-destruction, but when he takes his Turkey Form, he can also cleanse them of contamination, absolve them of guilt and overcome their fate.

In the tonalpohualli, Chalchihuihtotolin rules over day Tecpatl (Stone Knife) and over trecena 1-Atl.


Codex: Fejervary Mayer

Chalchiutlicue (also Chalchihuitlicue), "She of the Jade Skirt," or "She whose Night-robe of Jewel-stars Whirls Above," Lady of the Maintenance.

As Acuecucyoticihuati she is the goddess of oceans, rivers and any other running water, but also a god-dess of birth and the patron of women in labor.

Chalchiutlicue is the wife of Tlaloc the Rain God, and mother of Tecciztecatl the Moon God.

Chalchiutlicue was the ruler over the previous Fourth Sun. This world was destroyed by floods.

In the tonalpohualli, Chalchiuhtlicue is the protector of both the fifth day, Coatl  (snake), and the fifth trecena 1-Acatl (reed). Chalchiutlicue is Lord for days with number 3 ("yei" in Nahuatl). She is the sixth Lord of the Night.


Codex: Tonalamatl Aubin

Chalmecatecatecuhtli is a god of sacrifice, ruler of one of the nine levels of the Underworld.

He is closely related to Mictlantecuhtli.

In the tonalpohualli, Chalmecatecuhtli is the Lord of the Day for days with number 11.

(mahtlactli-once in Nahuatl).


Codex: Borgia

Chantico, She Who Dwells In The House, the god-ess of hearth fires, personal treasures and volcanoes.

Chantico broke a fast by eating paprika with roasted fish, and then was turned into a dog by

Chantico is closely related to Xiuhtecuhtli.

In the tonalpohualli, Chantico rules over Ehecatl (wind).


Codex: Borgia

Cihuateteo or Cihuapipiltin, the divine or noble women, the goddess of the crossroads. They can be dangerous goddesses, spirits of women who died in childbirth, and noe live on, escorting the setting sun. At noon, they take over the escort from the warriors who have died in war.

The Cihuateteo are closely related to the Tzitzimime:
(like for example the goddess Itzpapaloyl), the star demons that are the protectors of midwives and women in labor. The Cihuapipiltin have special influence on days 1-Calli (House), 1-Mazatl (Deer), 1-Ozomahtli (Monkey), 1-Cuauhtli (Eagle), 1-Quiahuitl (Rain).

On these days, after sunset, the Cihuapipiltin go the the crossroads to steal children and seduce men to commit aldultery.


Codex: Tonalamatl Aubin

Citlalicue (also Citlalinicue), Her Skirt is Stars, is also known as Ilamatecuhtli. She is a creator goddess, the goddess of the stars and the Milky Way, Earth, death and darkness.

With her husband Citlalatonac she created the stars. Citlalicue and Citlalatonac are sometimes associated with the first pair of humans, Nata and Nena.

As Ilamatecuhtli, she is associated with Cihuacoatl.

In the tonalpohualli, Citalicue is the Lord of the Day for days with number 13 (mahtlactli-omei in Nahuatl).


Codex: Borgia

Huehuecoyotl, the Old Coyote, also known as the Ancient Drum. He is a trickster, capable of reversals and pranks, often cruel ones.

Huehuecoyotl is a god of storytelling, music, dance and merriment. He is the patron of uninhibited sexuality, his partners can be female of male of any species.

Huehuecoyotl's tricks are often played on other gods but frequently backfire and cause more trouble for himself than the intended victims. He is a great party-giver, but also alleged to forment wars between humans to relieve his boredom.

He is related to Tezcatlipoca family of gods.
Like Tezcatlipoca, he is a frequent shape-shifter, capable of transforming himself into another animal of human at whim and unpredictably. Those who have indications of evil fates from the gods can appeal to Huehuecoyotl to mitigate or reverse their fate.

In the tonalpohualli, Huehuecoyotl is both the ruler of the fourth day, Cuetzpalin (lizard), and the fourth trecena, 1-Xochitl (flower).


Codex: Borbonicus

Huitzilopochtli, Hummingbird of the South, (or Hummingdird of the left) is the central deity of the Mexica. He is associated with the Sun and Fire. Huitzilopochtli is a warrior, armed with the ferrocious Xiuhcoatl ("Fire Snake").

Huitzilopochtli is somrtimes identified as the Blue Tezcatlipoca.

In the Huey Teocalli of Tenochititlan (the major temple of ancient Mexico City) one half was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, the other half to Tlaloc, the God of Rain.

Since war is called in atl tlachinolli (the water, the fire"), this combination of gods and fire and of water makes the major temple a place dedicated to the sacred war. Huitzilopochtli has no direct relevance for the tonalpohualli
In the xiuhpohualli however, various festivals were dedicated to him.


Codex: Borgia

Itzpapalotl is the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly, the Feminine Warrior.

Itzpapalotl is often depicted as a skeletal being with jaguar claws and wings edged by the obsidian knives.

She is one of the Tzitzimime the powerful and dangerous star demons. With other female deities like the Cihuateteo, Tlaltecuhtli, 
Coatlicue, Citlalicue, and Cihuacoatl, the
Tzitzimime are protectors of midwives and women in labor.

Itzpapalotl rules over Tamoachan, the heaven where the gods created the human race. Tamoachan is the home for the victims of infant mortality. Here grows the Suckling Tree which bears 400,000 nipples. Here the children can regain strength for re-incarnation

Itzpaplotl stands for purification or rejuventation by sacrifice of that which is precious.
In the tonalpohualli, Itzpapalotl rules over day Tecpatl (knife), and over trecena 1-Calli.


Codex: Borgia

Itztlacoliuhqui-Ixquimilli is Curved Point of Obsidian-Knife Eye Bundle, the god of frost, ice, cold, winter, sin, punishment and human misery. He is also the god of objectivity and blind-folded justice.

He is a variant of Tezcatlipoca and associated with the night and the north.

Itztlacoliuhqui once was Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli
(Lord of the Dawn, Venus as the Morning Star), but after a shooting match with the 
Sun Tonatiuh during the creation of the Fifth World, he was punished by Tonatiuh and transformed into Itzlacoliuhqui, god of stone and coldness.

Itztlacoliuhqui rules over trecena 1-Cuetzpalin (lizard).


Codex: Laud

Mayahuel is the goddess of the maguey plant and of ferrility. Protector of mature wombs that turn into life. From the milky sap of the maguey plant, aguamiel, the alcoholic drink pulque we brewn.

Mayahuel is often depicted with many breasts to feed her many children, the Centzon Totochin 
(the 400 Rabbits). The Centzon Totochin were thought to cause drunkenness.

Mayahuel is the wife of Patecatl, who is also a pulque god. The deity Ome Tochtli (Two Rabbits) represents all pulque gods. The spines of the Maguey plant were used by ancient priests and nobles for autosacrifice.

According to myth, Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl took Mayahuel from her grandmother and the fearsome star demons. The Tzitzimime caught her and tore her to pieces. Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl buried her remains from which the first maguey plant grew.

Mayahuel is both ruler of the eight day, Tochtli (rabbit), and the eight trecena.


Codex: Borgia

Mictlantecuhtli is ruler over Mictlan, the lowest underworld, the northern realm of the dead.

His wife is Mictlancihuatl. He is associated with the spider, the owl and the bat.

To create life, Quetzalcoatl needed the bones from those that lived in the prevoius world, the Fourth Sun. First Mictlantecuhtli agreed, but when Quetzalcoatl came to collect the bones, Mictlantecuhtli changed his mind.

Fortunately, Quetzalcoatl managed to escape. However, on his way back up he dropped some bones and broke some of them. This explains why humans come on all different sizes.

Mictlantecuhtli is both the ruler of the tnth day, Itzcuintli (dog), and the tenth trecena, 1-Tecpatl (knife). He is Lord of thr Day for days with number 6 ("chicuacen" in Nahuatl).
He is the fifth Lord of the Night.


Codex: Borbonicus

The God Quetzalcoatl is the Feathered Serpent or Precious Twin. He is the god of intelligence and self-reflection, a patron of priests.

Quetzalcoatl is a primordial god of creation, a giver of life.

With his opposite Tezcatlipoca he created the world. Quetzalcoatl is also called White Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the Black Tezcatlipoca.

As the Lord of the East, he is associated with the morning star, his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star (Venus).

As the morning star he was known by the name of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, "Lord of the Star of the Dawn."

An other representation of Quetzalcoatl is Ehecatl, 
the Wind God. His calendrical name is Ce Acatl (One Reed).

After the last world, the Fourth Sun had been destroyed, Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the land of the dead and created our current world, the Fifth Sun, by using his own blood to give new life to bones. Quetzalcoatl is also the giver of naize to mankind.

In the tonalpohualli, Quetzalcoatl rules over both the second day, Ehecatl (wind), and the second trecena, 1-Ocelatl (jaguar). He is Lord of the Day for days with number 9 ("chicunahui" in Nahuatl).


Codex: Borgia

Tecciztecatl (or Tecucitzecatl), the Old Moon God, represents the male aspect of the moon. He is the son of Tlaloc and Chalchihuitlicue.

In the beginning of the current world, the gods gathered at Teotihuacan and asked, "Who will take on the charge of illuminating the One World?" The beautiful and wealthy Tecciztecatl volunteered. When the moment arrived to complete the necessary rituals by throwing him-self into the sacrifical fire, he became scared.
The gods passed the opportunity to the sickly and blistered Nanahuatzin. She went and became the Sun. Ashamed, Tecciztecatl followed her to become another Sun. However, the gods threw a rabbit at him to dim his radiance. This is how the Fifth Sun started and how Tecciztecatl became the moon.

Tecciztecatl is often depicted as carrying a large white seashell, representing the moon. He is also called "He who Comes from the Land of the Sea-Slug Shell."

In the tonalpohualli, Tecciztecatl is the ruler of the sixth day, Miquiztli.


Codex: Borgia

Tezcatlipoca is the Smoking Mirror.
He is the god of the nocturnal sky, god of ancestral memory, god of time and the Lord of the North, the embodiment of change through conflict.

Together with his eternal opposite Quetzalcoatl, he created the world. In this process, he lost his foot when he used it as bait for the Earth Monster Cipactli. As a god of creation, he is known as:
Ipalnemoani, "He by Whom we Live."

Tezcatlipoca has many aspects. As Tezcatlipoca Yaotl (enemy), he is the patron of the warrior, as Tezcatlipoca Telpochtli, he stands for etrnal youth. Other names are Necocyaotl ("Enemy of Both Sides"), Tloque Nahuaque ("Lord of the Near and Far") and Yohualli Ehecatl (Night Wind), Ome acatl ("Two Reed") and Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque ("Possessor of the Sky and Earth").

Quetzalcoatl is also called White Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the Black Tezcatlipoca. Tezcatlipoca is usually depicted  black with a yellow stripe painted across his face. He is often shown with his right foot replaced with an obsidan mirror or a snake.

One of his Naguals is the Jaguar, and his Jaguar aspect is the deity Tepeyollotl "Heart of the Mountain". Another Nagual of Tezcatlipoca is Chalchihuihtotolin, the Blood-Jewelled Fowl. She is a symbol of powerful sorcery. Tezcatlipoca can tempt humans into self-destruction, but when he takes his turkey form he can also cleanse them of all contamination, absolve them of guilt and overcome  their fate.

In the tonalpohualli, Tezcatlipoca is the ruler of day Acatl. He is Lord of the Day for days with number 10 ("mahtlactli" in Nahuatl).


Codex: Fejervary-Mayer

Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli (also Tlahuixcalpantecuhtli) is the Lord of the House of the Dawn, Venus as the Morning Star.

He is a manifestion of Quetzalcoatl. His twin is Xolotl, Venus as the Evening Star.

Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli is a god of war.
In Teotihuacan, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli attacked Tonatiuh, the newly created Sun, by throwing an atl-atl dart at him. He missed. Tonatiuh threw a dart back, piercing Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli through his head. This transformed Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli into Itztlacoliuhqui, god of stone and coldness.
In the tonalpohualli, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli is the Lord of the Day for days with number 12 (mahtlactli-omome in Nahuatl).


Codex: Borgia

Tlaloc, He Who Makes Things Sprout, the god of rain, lighting and thunder.

He is a fertility god, but also a wrathful deity. He is responsible for both floods and droughts. Tlaloc is commonly depicted as a goggle-eyed blue being with jaguar fangs. Often he is presented wearing a net of clouds, a crown of heron feathers and foam sandals. He carries rattles to make thunder.

Tlaloc was first married to the goddess:
Xochiquetzal, but then Tezcatlipoca kidnapped her. He later married Chalchihuitlicue. With her, he became the father of Tecciztecatl. Tlaloc had an older sister named Huixtocihuatl.

He is ruler of Tlalocan, the fourth heaven. Tlalocan is the place of eternal spring, a paradise of green plants, Tlalocan is the destination in the afterlife for those who died violently from phenomena associated with water, such as lighting, drowning and water-borne diseases.

Tlaloc ruled over the third world, 4 Quiahuitl, the world that was destroyed by a fiery deluge. He is served by various rain spirits called the tlaloque.
In Tenochtitan, ancient Mexico City, half of the central temple ("Huey Teocalli") was dedicated to Tlaloc. The other half was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, the god of the Mexica.

Tlaloc is both the protector of the seventh day, Mazatl (deer) and the seventh trecena, 1-Quiahuitl (rain). He is Lord of the Day for days with number 8 ("chicuei" in Nahuatl). Tlaloc is the 9th and last Lord of the Night.


Codex: Laud

Tlazolteotl, "Filth Goddess" a Mother-Earth goddess. Tlazolteotl is the goddess of the human fertility and of sexuality. She is also associated with the Moon.

As Tlaelcuani, "the Eater of Filth" she is the goddess of the Ritual Cleansing. She is the mother of Centeotl, a maize god. In her incarnation as Teteoinnan, Mother of the Gods, she is a protector of the midwives, doctor woman and of those who tell fortune.

In the tonalpohualli, Tlazolteotl is the protector of the 14th day, Ocelotl (jaguar), and the 13th trecena Ollin (movement). She is Lord of the Day for days with number 5 ("mahcuilli" in Nahuatl). She is the 7th Lord of the Night.


Codex: Borgia

Tonacatecuhtli, Lord of Our Sustenance, is a primordial creator god, a god of fertility and beginnings.

Tonacatecuhtli is the being at the "Center" of existence, a place around which everything revolves but where everything is still and at rest.

With his wife Tonacacihuatl, he resides in the uppermost heaven, Omeyocan, "Palace of Duality."

Tonacatecuhtli is sometimes associated with Ometeotl (Lord of Duality).
In the tonalpohualli, Tonacatecuhtli rules over day Cipactli (crocodile).


Stone of Axayacatl 

Tonatiuh, the Sun or the Sun God. Symbol of the Fifth World, the present era.

According to Aztec Mythology, there have been four historical ages, called Suns... those of Earth, Wind, Fire, and Water. Each has been destroyed.

The present era is that of the Sun of Movement... Ollintonatiuh. It is also known as Nahuiollin or 4-Ollin (Movement).

In the famous Stone of Axayacatl, Tonatiuh's face is embedded un the calendrical sign. The wings of the Ollin symbol show the calendrical signs of the past four eras. Tonatiuh's claws are aspects of the Earth Goddess, Tlaltecuhtli.
In the tonalpohualli, Tonatiuh rules over trecena Miquiztli (death). He is Lord of the Day for days with number 4 ("nahui" in Nahuatl).

Xipe Totec

Codex: Borgia

Xipe Totec, Our Lord the Flayed One.

Xipe Totec is the god of the shedding of skins, God of Seedtime, the elemental force of rebirth. He is associated with rejuvenation and spring time.

Xipe Totec flayed himself to give food to humanity, symbolic of the maize seed losing the outer layer of the seed before germination.

Xipe Totec is the patron of the Goldsmiths.

He is also known as the Red Tezcatlipoca, to contrast him to the black Tezcatlipoca.

In the calendar, Xipe Totec is the protector of day Cuauhtli (eagle) and of the trecena that starts with day 1-Itzcuintli (dog).


Codex: Borgia

Xiuhtecuhtli is the Turquoise Lord, Lord of the Year, god of fire, creator of all life.

Xiuhtecuhtli, also called Ixcozauhqui and also Huehueteotl, the Old God, is considered "Mother and Father of the Gods, he who stands at the center of the world." He is the personification of light in the darkness, warmth in coldness, food during famine, and life in death.

Xiuhtecuhtli is often depicted with a red or yellow face, with a censer on his head. As a patron of kings and warriors, he is shown wearing a crown and ornaments made of Turquoise blue stone. As a Huehueteotl, he appears as an eldery man, usually bent over and carrying a brazier, or small stove on his head.
Chalchuiuhtlicue is mentioned to be his wife. With Chantico as his feminine counterpart, he is seen as a representation of Ometeotl. His nagual is the Xiuhcoatl, the Fire Serpent.

Xiuhtecuhtli is the central diety in the New Fire ceremony, held every 52 years in year 2-Acatl (Ome Acatl, which is also a name for Tezcatlipoca).

In the tonalpohualli, Xiuhtecuhtli is the protector of day Atl (water). He rules over the last trecena of the tonalpohualli, 1-Tochtli (rabbit). Xiuhtecuhtli is Lordof the Day for days with number 1("ce" in Nahuatl). He is the first Lord of the Night.


Codex: Borgia

Xochipili, the Flower Prince, is the god of flowers, pleasure, feasting, frivolity and artistic creativity.

Xochipili is closely related to Macuilxochitl (Five Flower), who is one of the Ahuiateteo, the gods that embody the dangers of excess.

The Ahuiateteo are related to the direction of the south. They share characteristics of Tezcatlipoca. The Ahuiateteo are often paired with the dangerous Cihuateteo. Xochipili rules over the 11th day of the tonalpohualli, day Ozomahtli (monkey).


Codex: Borgia

Xochiquetzal is Flower Feather, the ever young and pretty goddess of flowers, love, pleasure and beauty. She is a patron of artists.

Xochiquetzal represents the sexual power of young women. In this way she is related to the Ahuitateteo  and excess. She also resides over childbirth and preg-nancy, relating her to mother-godesses like Toci and Tlazolteotl.

Her twin is Xochipili. Her husband was Tlaloc, until Tezcatlipoca kidnapped her and she was forced to marry him.

Xochiquetzal is often depicted surrounded by flowers and butterflies, and accompanied by a hummingbird or an ocelotl.
In the tonalpohualli, Xochiquetzal rules over the last day, Xochitl (flower) and over trecena 1-Cuauhtli (eagle).


Codex: Borgia

Xolotl, the twin, the Shapeshifter, Venus as the Evening Star, the Lord of the West, Double of Quetzalcoatl.

Xolotl is the dog-like deity, often depicted with ragged ears. He is identified with sickness and physical deformity. As a double of Quetzalcoatl, he carries his conch-like ehecailacacoxcatl, or wind jewel.

Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, Land of the Death or the Underworld, to retrive the bones from those who inhabited the previous world (Nahui Atl) to create new life for the present world, Nahui Ollin, the sun of movement.
In a sense, this re-creation of life is reacted every night when Xolotl guides the sun through the underworld.

In the tonalpohualli, Xolotl rules over day Ollin (movement) and over trecena 1-
Cozacuauhtli (vulture).

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